What is farming? What is the importance of farming? What sections is it divided into?

Farming is the profession of cultivation, maintenance, planting and cultivation in the soil by making use of manpower and various machines, and the production of plants, animals or animal products or the processing and evaluation of these products by the breeders. Those who are constantly engaged in this business are called “farmers”. Farmers take on many different roles as innovators, entrepreneurs, employers and environmental stewards.

What is farming?

Farming is one of the building blocks of agriculture. Regardless of the level and condition, it is a real production activity, a way of holding on to life and a job door. Especially when small-scale farming is supported by policies aimed at social protection and the well-being of communities, it is important for the revival of rural economies. While farming helps preserve traditional food products, it also contributes to a balanced diet and to the preservation of agricultural diversity in the world. farming in developing countries;

Preservation of local culture is important in terms of providing a sense of belonging with its animals and soil. It provides employment with lower capitals compared to other sectors. “Farming” is a must because billions of people in the world have income and livelihood, use natural assets, and produce food, and the “farmers” who do this are the owners of the most honorable profession.

Farming is mainly divided into the following sections in terms of the characteristics, type and variety of the product it wants to produce, and the means and possibilities it will use in these works:

1- The main farming section that produces plants:

The main farming section that produces plants

In this section, field cultures, namely agricultural crops (cereals, pulses, industrial crops, pasture and fodder crops) and horticultural crops, that is, vineyard-garden crops (viticulture, fruit growing, vegetable growing, floriculture and ornamental plants) are included in this section. . Of these, field cultures are related to the production of the main foodstuffs that people need and are grown annually and widely produced. Horticultural cultures, on the other hand, are farming that require continuous work and extensive knowledge in a narrower area.

2- The department of the farm that produces domesticated animals (Zootechnics):


This department is carried out in full cooperation with and in full cooperation with the department of farming that breeds plants in terms of agricultural economy. Livestock is the main subject of farming. In addition to foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese, eggs, meat obtained from animals, leather, wool and fertilizers are also used. Some are used as passenger cars. In this section, large livestock (harness and riding animals; meat, milk, wool-producing animals; sea and freshwater fishing) and small livestock (poultry, poultry, beekeeping, sericulture) are branches.

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3- Department of farming arts that evaluates products:

Department of farming arts that evaluates products

In this section, the industry of valorization of vegetable products (wine, brewing, vinegar, molasses, rakı, spirit, bakery, oil) and animal products (dairy, meat canning, weaving) takes place.



It is the marketing department of the grown products as fresh and dry. The availability of roads and vehicles to be shipped facilitates the marketing of products. Factories are established and raw materials are processed and made available to people. Sugar, oil, textile, milk, cheese and flour factories are the most important ones.

5-Agricultural diseases:

Agricultural diseases

Protective measures to be taken in the fields, gardens, vineyards, barns and storage areas, pesticides protect the crops from disease. If these are done on time and with knowledge, the yield will increase, better and more abundant crops will be obtained. Organizations of the Ministry of Agriculture help the farmers to obtain abundant products in this regard.

6-Irrigation, maintenance and fertilization of the soil:

Irrigation, maintenance and fertilization of the soil

It is the most important branch of farming. When these are done with scientific methods, the yield is higher. The measures to be taken against the erosion of rain water and winds are also included in this section.

7-Agricultural machinery:

Agricultural machinery

Plenty of machinery is used in farming, so more products are obtained. These agricultural tools; There are types and varieties used in different places such as preparation of the soil, planting, care of plants, collection and packaging of products. The maintenance and repair of these machines and tools, which are in large quantities, created the agricultural machinery section.

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